Sunday, February 23, 2020
Juvenile Justice - Coursework Example The biggest achievement of the Child-savers was the establishment of the first ever juvenile court in Chicago in 1899. This court was created on the grounds that juveniles neither were neither ready to account for their actions nor were they completely developed. They could however be rehabilitated more easily. 2. Operation Of The Early Juvenile Courts The primary juvenile courts were designed in the United States in 1910 and they were functional in 32 states. By 1925, only 2 states did not have juvenile courts. Instead of meting out punishments to delinquent youngsters, these juvenile courts endeavored to reform them, in order that they transform into responsible, productive citizens. The laws governing the juvenile courts clearly stated that their objective was to help children in trouble. This resulted to rather significant differences between the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Over the path of the subsequent 50 years, most of the juvenile courts held jurisdiction over pra ctically all youngsters who were embroiled in the violations of criminal laws. It was only if a juvenile court withdrew or withheld its jurisdiction, were the young offenders transferred to criminal courts and tried as adults. The decision to transfer these children to criminal courts was based on individual case by case bases, and the best concern of the children was taken into account. The focus always remained on rehabilitation rather than punishment. 3. Supreme Court decision of Kent v. United States Kent v US 1966 is a well-known court case concerning juveniles and their rights. Petitioner was detained at the age of 16 in association with charges of housebreaking, theft and rape. As a juvenile, he was accused to the limited authority of the District of Columbia Juvenile Court except that court, after "complete investigation," ought to waive jurisdiction over him and forward him for assessment to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. RequesterÃ¢â¬â¢s a dvocate filed a movement in the Juvenile Court for a trial on the question of waiver, and for right of entry to the Juvenile Court's Social Service file which had been building up on requester through his try-out for a preceding offense. The decision and conclusion of the case incorporated the facts which are: there must at all times be a trial in the issue of waiver of jurisdiction; secondly there must always be support of counsel in a trial of waiver of jurisdiction and third the plaintiff's counsel must have right to view to all social records. If the adjudicator determines that a waiver of transfer is the precise answer there must be a declaration of facts based on a complete inquiry, counting a statement of the judge's grounds for the waiver. A waiver of jurisdiction is mainly the verdict to authorize a juvenile to be tried as an adult in criminal court. 4. Supreme Court decision of In Re Gault In re Gault, 387 U.S. 1 (1967), was a milestone U.S. Supreme Court verdict that held that juveniles charged of crimes in a criminal behavior happening must be afforded many of the equal due process rights as adults, such as the right to opportune notification of the charges, the right to deal with witnesses, the right adjacent to self-incrimination, and the right to advise. The U.S. Supreme Cou
Friday, February 7, 2020
Ethics in the Workplace - Essay Example The various rights of the employees within the workplace definitely include privacy as a major tenet within it since the top management knows that if the subordinates, middle management and the lower management is not at ease (in terms of mind and heart) at the workplace, then it is very much impossible to extract the best possible work out of them and this is for sure that the efficiency levels will drop as a result of the same. Employee motivation at workplace works to the advantage of the firm and the people at the helm of it since they know for sure that their employees would give in their best no matter how trying or tough the circumstances are. This means that they are assured of their commitment levels and the intensity of the hard work that they will put in, even under the most strenuous of routines. But this raises an interesting proposition, a stance which needs to be discussed by all and sundry. Over work can reduce employee motivation as well as add to the stress on the part of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ physical and mental domains. What needs to be done is to gauge the exact amount of work that they can handle within a time period as well as give them enough incentives so that they remain loyal to the cause of the organization. [Williams, 1992, pp. 151] If there is no privacy for the employees, they would not feel motivated to do their tasks and activities in an effective and efficient manner and it is ultimately the firm which will lose out on the productivity angle nonetheless. My personal experience tells me that the females who used to work in my office did not have a separate room for them where they could sit and talk amongst themselves. This is usually the ladies room which was missing from our organizational set up. What this did was to make sure that the men pestered around the females at all odd times, when they used
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
How Technology is changing our online life Essay It is hard to imagine life without email nowadays. The only efficient means of communication, with efficient meaning that the message is delivered within seconds, is either through the cellular phone or through email via the internet. It is even more impossible to imagine how people could work under circumstances that denied them access to the latest communication technologies or even technology at all. Yet somehow, there was really a time when people where not at the beck and call of their cellular phones and a time when nobody really felt the urge to keep checking the mailbox every five minutes for fear of missing an email. There was a time when people actually drove to the store or entered a store and talked with the attendants before buying something. Ordering shoes and bags or other electronic items was done by going to a shop and not by going online and surfing online as it is done today. Friends and lovers were met and made by going to social functions and parties instead of by checking out somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s myspace profile or advertising on online personals. While those practices are still being done by certain individuals, the growth of the internet and the wide array of services that it offers have dramatically altered the manner by which people interact with one another and also the manner by which individuals lead their daily lives. The convenience and accessibility that the internet offers makes it an ideal replacement for all the previous time and energy consuming endeavors. With the number of people who are connected to the internet growing everyday, it is but a natural consequence that more and more services are being offered online ranging from dating, shopping, research and entertainment. In understanding how this newfound online lifestyle has changed our lives, it is important to understand the lures that are online that make it such a tempting alternative to doing this the time consuming and energy expending tasks. The internet provides everything online. Everything a person can desire or want is available online. Romance can be found through chatting or through online personals while intrigue can also be found on popular blog spots. Food is readily available for order online and so are clothes and other items. In short, there is nothing that cannot be found online and all a person needs to do is point and click. This is the lure of the online life and this is the reason why more and more people are leading the online life. It is convenient. It is time saving. It does not require one to expend a lot of energy. In certain cases, it also allows a person to work more efficiently and become more productive. From the standpoint of privacy, the internet offers virtual anonymity to anybody who goes online. All of this is offered online thanks to the great improvements in electronic and communications technology. As the developments in the electronics and communications technology continues to improve and advance, it will no longer be far off to imagine a world where nobody is walking the streets and everyone is hooked up to their computers interacting with each other in a world where they can be their own gods and dictate their own destinies without even breaking a sweat. Instead of just seeing an image of another person online, it may actually be possible to experience the sensation of feeling and touching that person. This all may just be future talk but one thing is certain. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society has become so dependent on the benefits that technology has brought in making online life possible that we have come to a point of no return where we can no longer imagine life without it. If you think otherwise, turn off your cellular phone and unhook the jack of your computer and see how long you can survive without it.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Comparing Lillian HellmanÃ¢â¬â¢s The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hour and The Little Foxes. Lillian Hellman was a well-known American dramatist who was born in 1905 in New Orleans ("Hellman," 1999). She later moved and attended New York public schools and went on to go to New York University and Columbia University as well. Within the confines of her youth, there had been confusion about her family background (Harmon, 1999). There has always been talk about her parents troubled marriage and other events have cropped up to make Hellman an intriguing figure. Yet, she went on to grow up and find a husband, something typical in her day. She married another playwright named Arthur Kober, but this relationship ended in divorce ("Hellman," 1999; James, 1999). Her intimate friendship with the novelist Dashiell Hammett would continue until his death in 1961 (1999). Yet, Hellman would never remarry. Hellman did not begin to write plays until the 1930s, her dramas are well known for focusing on various forms of evil ("Hellman," 1999). Her work has not escaped criticism however. She has been criticized at various times for her doctrinaire views but she nevertheless kept her characters from becoming social points of view by including credible dialogue and a realistic intensity which put her a step above her peers ("Hellman," 1999). Indeed, Hellman wrote with the skill of a professional but the emotions of a child. I feel she was able to capture the innermost fears and thoughts of people, drawing on their most hideous features. In the encyclopedia Hellman is described as an American Dramatist, whose plays are distinguished for the forcefulness of their matter, usually a condemnation of personal and social evil. They are also notable for character development and expert construction (Encarta). These points come through clearly in both The Children's Hour and The L ittle Foxes. Interestingly, Hellman seemed to entitle these works in an innocuous but mischievous way. In a variety of works, it appears that HellmanÃ¢â¬â¢s themes have all centered around evil and lies. They have drawn on things that, for the most part, people do not like to look at. Her works are truly disturbing, as she forces the audience to dig deep into their own psyches. It is important to note that Hellman had grown up in interesting times. She was a teenager in the Roaring ... ...x Plays by Lillian Hellman. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 1-78 Hellman, L. (1979). "The Little Foxes." Six Plays by Lillian Hellman. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 147-199 James, C. (1999, May 31). "That 50's Cocktail of Hellman, Hammett and the Red Scare." New York Times, pp. E1. Kaupunginkirjasto, K. (2000, July 22). "Lillian Hellman (1905-1984)" [online]<www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lhelman.htm> McHenry, R. (1995, December 20). "Hellman, Lillian (biography), Her Heritage: A Biographical Encyclopedia of famous American women" <electronic library> Reuben, P. (2000, July 22). "Chapter 8: American Drama-Lillian Hellman." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature- AA research and reference guide. [online]<www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap8/hellman.html> Webb, K. (2000, July 22). "ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all a lie: Destructive dishonesty in the works of Lillian Hellman." [online]<http://www2.rpa.net/~webb/kaw/allalie.htm> Wright, W. (1996, November 3) "Why Lillian Hellman remains fascinating." New York Times pp. H9.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Soft drinks in India is a INR 11,000 Crore industry1. The rising mercury levels have ensured that the Indian soft drinks industry is going through a healthy phase wherein, it registered an impressive growth of 24. 6% in the year 2011/12. Carbonates had a growth of 13. 6% growth, Bottled water saw an incredible 34. 3% growth, Fruits and vegetable juices registered a growth of 29. 7%, Sports and energy drinks saw a growth of 17. 2%. PepsiCo operates in these product lines and the impressive growth numbers were of great encouragement for the soft drinks industry in general and PepsiCo in particular.Coke and Pepsi The key players Coca Cola and PepsiCo actively revived their old brands that were popular in the 1980s in India. Coca Cola revived its old brand Citra within the lime carbonates category. While Coca Cola already had Sprite and Limca in the lime carbonates category, Citrus was priced at 20% cheaper than them. Coca Cola also reintroduced its brand Ã¢â¬Å"RimzimÃ¢â¬ , a masala soda with cumin and spices. PepsiCo reciprocated by reviving its popular brand Duke in Mumbai, where it is very well known. Duke was launched in four flavours. Since PepsiCo and Coca Cola have almost similar product lines, companies launched new products and were involved in brand extensions in order to differentiate from the others. PepsiCoÃ¢â¬â¢s Mirinda was the answer for Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s Fanta in the orange category. Lack of differentiation in the Orange category lead PepsiCo to launch two new varieties of Mirinda- Ã¢â¬Å"Mango OrangeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Orange MasalaÃ¢â¬ in order to gain traction among the consumers. PepsiCoÃ¢â¬â¢s launch of 7up lemony bite in Punjab was to counter Limca. Tata Gluco + was launched by NourishCo ( A joint venture between PepsiCo and Tata ), a lemon flavoured refreshing and recharging beverage. Danone and Narang Beverages partnered to launch BÃ¢â¬â¢lue, a water-based restorative drink. Companies are constantly innovating to come up with new products with greater benefits that will help the companies differentiate themselves in the soft drinks industry. The soft drinks industry in urban India is reaching maturity, which is forcing the companies to look at the rural market as the next bastions of growth. Urban consumers consider carbonated soft drinks unhealthy. There is an increased traction for fruit and vegetable juices among the urban consumers. PepsiCoÃ¢â¬â¢s Tropicana, Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s Minute maid and DaburÃ¢â¬â¢s Real are addressing this surge in the demand for fruit and vegetable juices. As far as the rural markets are concerned, a significant 21% of the off trade volume sales in 2012 came from these markets. Companies are increasing their focus on rural India. As an indication for the increased focus, Coca Cola started distribution of solar powered coolers in rural areas which can store up to two crates of Returnable Glass Bottles (RGBs). Competitors: The Indian soft drinks industry is dominated by PepsiCo, Coca Cola and Parle Bisleri ltd. Coca Cola has 23. 6% of share, Parle Bisleri ltd. has 21. 6% share and PepsiCo has 21. 2%. Parle Bisleri ltd. garners such high volumes solely based on its packaged drinking water brand Ã¢â¬Å"BisleriÃ¢â¬ . Excluding packaged water, itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost a duopoly with PepsiCo and Coca Cola being the significant players in the soft drinks industry. PepsiCo and Coca Cola have similar product lines. Each of them has a brand as an answer for the brand of the other company. To start with, in the cola drinks category,
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Bumper Jacksons Concert Review Walking towards Mondavi center, I was amazed by how shiny and resplendent she was at night. Having got my free ticket from the ticket office, I was led by well-dressed and kind staff to the Vanderhoef Studio where the concert will start soon. Upon entering the studio, I noticed that rather than rows of seats, there were round tables, on which little candles were dimming. Purple and blue lights were shed from the ceiling. I thought this set created a vibe that was so Jazz. Suddenly I felt, somehow, this was going to be a wonderful show that differed from all the concerts that I used to have. When I took my seat at the table, I had a chance to talk to my tablemates. They were an old couple who were local of Davis but I forgot to ask their names, which was a pity. I asked how they got to know this band. They said actually, they did not know the band before. They bought the membership of the Mondavi center and chose to come to this show because the band played a bit country music, which they loved. Looking around, the local middle-aged people and the elderly made up the majority of the audience, plus some family guests so I thought maybe it reflected that while hip-hop, rock, electrical dance music were more popular among the young generation, traditional American music like jazz, blues or country were more welcome by the older generation. Then the show started. The band showed up as a group of five, one female and four males. Also, they are all
Friday, December 27, 2019
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s advanced world of technology, valuable information holds the same amount of worth that of new world currency. Since information is highly important, it is crucial that it remains secured. This is ultimately covered by data security and privacy. Online data is a hackerÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, as it holds the ultimate value of materials for these cybercriminals. For example, on a broader scale, banking information can be worth over a thousand dollars depending on the account balance. If cybercriminals get a hold of these informationÃ¢â¬â¢s, it can be costly for businesses. On a smaller scale, for a small business, customer information theft can paralyze operations and even put a company out of business. In order to prevent these crimes, there are nine important data security policies that starts with ensuring data security accountability, policies that govern network services, scanning for vulnerabilities, managing patches, system data security policies, the response to inc idents, acceptable use, monitoring compliance, and account monitoring and control. Ensuring data security accountability is an important factor in a company. The company needs to make sure they are aware of the responsibilities. Information like confidential data has value and also bank account statements, personal information, and credit card numbers. According to a statement on IT Security Community Blog: Ã¢â¬Å"A very key component of protecting information confidentiality would be encryption. Encryption ensures thatShow MoreRelatedSecurity As A Service Provider Paper984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthis modern and ubiquitously connected world, an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s security posture can determine its fate, attacks are committed by nefarious actors worldwide every day, it is important that an organization follow security industryÃ¢â¬â¢s best practice and governing laws and regulations, go a step further in protecting not only its own data but also all data and information especially regarding clients. This paper will discuss the way a Security as a Service Provider Ã¢â¬â Secured Inc. which had gone above andRead MoreInformation Governance : The Center Of The Healthcare Industry1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesform. Safe and accurate information are some of the keys to quality care. With the industry constantly changing and with several ways of accessing processed data, safeguarding patient information is top priority. 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